Network Model Illustration

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Network Model :: Transport Layer

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The transport layer in a network model is responsible for process-to-process delivery of the entire message. A process is an application program running on a host. Whereas the network layer in a network model oversees source-to-destination delivery of individual packets, it does not recognize any relationship between those packets. It treats each one independently, as though each piece belonged to a separate message, whether or not it does. The transport layer in a network model, on the other hand, ensures that the whole message arrives intact and in order, overseeing both error control and flow control at the source-to-destination level. Figure 2.10 shows the relationship of the transport layer to the network and session layers of a network model.



Transport layer in a network model
Figure 2.10

Transport layer in a network model




The transport layer in a network model is responsible tor the delivery of a message from one process to another.

Other responsibilities of the transport layer in a network model include the following:

Service-point addressing.

Computers often run several programs at the same time. For this reason, source-to-destination delivery means delivery not only from one computer to the next but also from a specific process (running program) on one computer to a specific process (running program) on the other. The transport layer header in a network model must therefore include a type of address called a service-point address (or port address). The network layer in a network model gets each packet to the correct computer; the transport layer in a network model gets the entire message to the correct process on that computer.

Segmentation and reassembly.

A message is divided into transmittable segments, with each segment containing a sequence number. These numbers enable the transport layer in a network model to reassemble the message correctly upon arriving at the destination and to identify and replace packets that were lost in transmission.

Connection control.

The transport layer in a network model can be either connectionless or connection-oriented. A connectionless transport layer in a network model treats each segment as an independent packet and delivers it to the transport layer at the destination machine. A connection-oriented transport layer makes a connection with the transport layer at the destination machine first before delivering the packets. After all the data are transferred, the connection is terminated.

Flow control.

Like the data link layer, the transport layer in a network model is responsible for flow control. However, flow control at this layer is performed end to end rather than across a single link.

Error control.

Like the data link layer, the transport layer in a network model is responsible for error control. However, error control at this layer is performed process-to-process rather than across a single link. The sending transport layer in a network model makes sure that the entire message arrives at the receiving transport layer without error (damage, loss, or duplication). Error correction is usually achieved through retransmission.


Figure 2.11 illustrates process-to-process delivery by the transport layer in a network model.



process-to-process delivery by the transport layer in a network model
Figure 2.11

Reliable process-to-process delivery of a message



Next

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Network Model

Layered Tasks in a Network Model

Network Model: THE OSI MODEL

Network Model :: Physical Layer

Network Model :: Data Link Layer

Network Model :: Network Layer

Network Model :: Transport Layer

Network Model :: Session Layer

Network Model :: Presentation Layer

Network Model :: Application Layer

TCP/IP protocol suite in a Network Model

Addressing system in a Network Model

Important Points about Network Model


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